Don't miss that you can use Excel's COUNTIF formula to find how many entries in a given range of cells do not match a given value. So, in this example we have used VLOOKUP to find where the values in column A appear in column F.

COUNTIF can be used to find how many values were found that match the inventory in column F by entering the criteria "#N/A" preceded by '<>' to indicate the search is for anything other than this given value. So, the formula:


. . . adds up the 9 occurrences of Apple and Pear in column B.

The use of conformed signatures, with '/s/' followed by a typed name, e.g., '/s/ John R. Smith', has been common for a long time, and will be more widespread now than ever with so many attorneys working from home. Be sure to know the correct term to use for this form of signing. 'Electronic signature' can describe a digital image of a handwritten signature, but should also be a method that allows for the detection of any changes to a document after the signature is applied, and provide a key the signer can use to verify his or her identity. A 'digital signature' is a type of electronic signature that uses encryption to confirm the identity of the signer.

Some courts specify that a conformed signature can substitute for an actual signature on a legal filing. The Northern District of California on its website states that, "A conformed signature is used to indicate that a 'real' signature is in place of an original.", but requires a signature attestation for conformed signatures used on documents filed by another attorney. The attestation can be added at the end of the filing, or be appended as a separate document.

Delaware law allows filings for businesses to use conformed signatures. "Any signature on any certificate authorized to be filed with the Secretary of State under any provision of this chapter may be a facsimile, a conformed signature or an electronically transmitted signature." 6 Del. C. § 17-206.

When using 'Find Similar Documents' in the document Viewer in Relativity, be sure to note that long documents which cover many different topics may not give you the best results.

To get more targeted results, simply select the text from the document you are reviewing, and then right click and select the index . . . 'Concept Search'.

. . . as you can see the document results are narrowed down quite a bit.

Sean O'Shea has more than 15 years of experience in the litigation support field with major law firms in New York and San Francisco.   He is an ACEDS Certified eDiscovery Specialist and a Relativity Certified Administrator.

The views expressed in this blog are those of the owner and do not reflect the views or opinions of the owner’s employer.


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