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Virtual private networks can use different protocols.
1. OpenVPN is the most widely used VPN protocol, and is considered to be the most secure protocol. There are actually two different versions of OpenVPN - OpenVPN with UDP (User Datagram Protocol), or OpenVPN with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). The latter is slower, but more stable.
2. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) differs from OpenVPN in that it does not require a third party application. It works on the network level, rather than using SSL (secure socket layer), like OpenVPN.
3. WireGuard is an experimental VPN protocol that has not been widely adopted. It should offer faster performance, and it was designed for use on cell phones since it switches between network interfaces without dropping the connection.
4. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is an older protocol with security vulnerabilities that should be avoided.