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A Windows operating system uses an API (application programming interface) called DirectX to allow programs installed on your PC to work with the video and audio of your computer. You can bring up the diagnostics tool for DirectX by going to Run and entering: dxdiag

The DirectX Diagnostic Tool will have tabs for each set of monitors and speakers connected to your computer. A tab named 'Render' will display information for the dedicated graphics card on your PC. It will show the VRAM for your PC - the amount of computer memory dedicated to graphics:

The very first tip of the night on April 12, 2015 warned to never try to use Trial Director or other presentation software for a courtroom electronic presentation without confirming that your laptop has sufficient VRAM. Trust me, I know from bitter experience that video clips for deposition designations with multiple segments will not play back correctly on a laptop without sufficient VRAM. The current version of Trial Director requires a graphics card with 4 GB of dedicated graphics memory. See the specs posted here.

Use the DirectX Diagnostic Tool to check how much VRAM the monitors and projectors you are connected to will require.

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HIPS software, Host-based Intrusion Prevention System, checks a server, computer, or workstation for events occurring on that host which indicate there is a cybersecurity threat. One of the features of a HIPS program is that it monitors files for changes in content. It's not a firewall, looking for intrusions into the host, but a system that checks for changes within. It will also keep track of which programs installed on the host have been verified, and block them from taking restricted actions. HIPS differs from anti-virus software which checks for known viruses. It is not limited by only being able to check for malware that has been identified, but it will look for attacks following known patterns.

HIPS should flag cases in which interprocess communications (IPC) - data exchanged between programs - becomes a means by which a trusted program becomes infected with malware. HIPS will monitor protocols, such as HTTP or TCP, for deviations from their normal content. It will also watch for when something alters registry keys, installs drivers, or terminates other applications.

A system which detects threats that have already occurred is a host-based intrusion detection system - HIDS.

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If you have ever wondered if there is an easy way to modify VLOOKUP to pull more than one result from an array, note that Excel's new FILTER function can be used to easily return multiple hits.

FILTER can search for when a given value matches another value in the array B:B, and then pull the value from A:A.   In this example, on the worksheet we have a list of last names in column B. There are multiple entries for common last names. The full names are give in column A. For select last names listed in column H, we want to list each result in the A:B array in the columns on the right. The aim is to see if any names listed in column G match those in column A inexactly. With the data arranged in columns J, K, L, etc., we can see at a glance if the names are the same but for the addition of a maiden name, middle initial, abbreviated form of a first name, or some other common change. For example, we can see on row 2 that 'Bob Smith' is a match for 'Robert Smith'.

The FILTER formula pulls the results from the listed array (B:B) when a value on the same row in the second listed array (A:A) matches the value in the cell reference given at the end after the equals sign.


FILTER will return all of the results at once. It's not necessary to use CTRL + D to add them to successive cells.

If you precede FILTER with the TRANSPOSE formula the values will be displayed horizontally automatically.

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